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Research on Mechanical Modeling and Design Methods of Ceramic Crafts Packaging
Ceramics is a great invention for China The Chinese ceramic art has a long history. For thousands of years, ceramic crafts have been favored by domestic and foreign collectors in many colorful porcelain. With the development of economic construction, ceramic handicrafts have been increasingly used by institutions, enterprises, hotels and exhibition halls to decorate the halls. In the same way, with the continuous improvement of people's living standards, in order to decorate life and beautify the living environment, ceramic handicrafts have even become more and more popular among ordinary people.
Ceramic arts and crafts are generally divided into "ceramic vases", "ceramic characters", "ceramic animals", "art ceramics", etc. They are often based on the mystery of Eastern culture as the theme, with simple, fresh, natural style to dominate the taste, set the use of , Ornamentality and collection in one, so that each viewer can appreciate the intriguing and thought-provoking life sentiments shaped by the fire and mud. Ceramic arts and crafts, especially large and medium-sized art vases, because of its burning The difficulty of the system and the low rate of production, coupled with artistic design and artistic decoration, are even more precious.
Due to the brittleness of ceramic artwork, it is easily damaged in the process of transportation and relocation, so the packaging has become a very important part in the production and transportation of ceramic handicrafts. Due to the large volume and large production volume of large and medium-sized ceramic art objects, for the sake of cost reduction, conventional medium and large-scale ceramic craft products are often packaged in traditional simple methods (such as straw, bamboo, etc.) without high gears. The foam molding process is used for packaging. This kind of simple packaging is easily damaged in the course of transportation, causing great economic losses to the company, and may even cause unnecessary disputes. Some high-grade art porcelains are packaged in the form of wooden boxes and scraps of paper, which adds a great deal of transportation costs to the products and increases the economic burden. Especially when it comes to ecological environmental protection and advocating a conservation-oriented society, the use of wooden box packaging is an extravagant waste, which is contrary to the requirements of the times. Therefore, how to improve the packaging effect of medium and large-scale ceramic art, at the same time save wood and control costs, is a new research topic for a ceramic production enterprise. With the continuous emergence of new packaging materials and new processes, it is necessary to redesign the original packaging technology and process.
1 Packaging Dynamics Model
The damage to ceramic crafts is not generally due to the static pressure generated during storage and storage, but due to the vibrations during transportation and the impacts during loading and unloading.
According to the damage boundary theory, the damage of the cargo is actually constrained by two boundary conditions, one is the maximum allowable acceleration and the other is the duration of the shock pulse. When ceramic handicrafts are produced, the maximum allowable acceleration G is naturally determined. When the acceleration generated by the external force is greater than the maximum allowable acceleration of the product itself, the ceramic will be damaged and damaged. Therefore, whether the goods fall to the ground is safe. To analyze the maximum acceleration and impact duration when the goods and land are impacted. When an object is dropped from a certain height or squeezed in a certain direction, the entire process involves a series of energy conversions. If the object falls from a certain height, the gravitational potential energy is converted into kinetic energy; when the object impacts with the ground, the kinetic energy is converted into the elastic potential energy of the buffer packaging material. At this point, the packaging material acts as a shock absorber, and like a spring, it converts kinetic energy into elastic potential energy and absorbs most of the energy, so that it can protect the goods.
The packaging material may be an amorphous filling material (such as paper scraps, sawdust, weft yarns, etc.), or it may be a shaped packaging product (such as pad corner, pad, etc.). Regardless of the form or material used, they can be simplified to the equivalent kinetic model shown in Figure 1.
To effectively protect ceramic crafts, it must control its acceleration during transportation and loading and unloading. In addition to requiring civil and civil workers to handle loading and unloading, what we can do is to design a good buffer package. According to the above dynamic model, it is necessary to fully consider and use the equivalent elasticity factor k, the equivalent damping factor c, and the condition of the contact boundary in each direction shown in FIG.
2 Ceramic Crafts Packaging Design
2 1 design ideas
There are two main functions of packaging: First, the protection function is also the most basic function of the packaging; second, the function of beautification. For ceramic arts and crafts, the focus of packaging design is different from ordinary daily necessities. The function of its packaging is mainly to play a protective role, so that it is not damaged by various external forces in the storage, transportation and sales links, and the safety of handicrafts is guaranteed. A craft must go through many rounds of circulation before it can enter a mall or other place and eventually reach the hands of consumers. During this period, it needs to go through various stages such as handling, transportation, inventory, display, and sales. The vibration and impact of circulation are the greatest hidden dangers and sources of threats to the safety of ceramic crafts. Due to the product's transportation, not only the vibration of the road surface during transportation, but also the impact of the loading and unloading process. Under certain conditions, the damage caused by vibration will become more prominent. The main reason is that the packaging material itself is not very good anti-shock ability, no elasticity does not play a role in damping. Due to the bumpy vibrations during transportation and the impact of many rough loading and unloading, it is objectively uncontrollable and difficult to avoid. Therefore, only relying on a good packaging buffer design to protect the product, make it possible to reduce losses in the circulation and achieve control costs. The purpose of increasing business efficiency. The packaging design for ceramic crafts mainly starts from improving the structure and material of the packaging, and the cushioning and vibration reduction conditions are well improved to ensure the safety of the ceramic in the circulation process and meet the requirements of the enterprise.
2 2 selection of packaging materials
Due to the brittleness of ceramic arts and crafts, such as large and medium-sized art vases, if traditional packaging methods are used, such as wooden racks plus paper scraps or wooden racks plus straw, the buffering effect is not ideal.
There are many kinds of buffer packaging materials, such as natural, synthetic, fixed and amorphous.
Unshaped packaging materials have been gradually eliminated due to their unstable buffer properties and poor resilience. With the development of industry, continuous improvement of technical level and the adoption of various new synthetic materials, shape-setting cushioning materials have accounted for the vast majority of modern packaging.
In the form-fitting packaging materials, there are various artificial synthetic materials such as formed pulp, corrugated cardboard, paper-cotton materials, mats, springs, foams, and air-cushion films.
When selecting materials, various material performance parameters such as absorbability, rebound resilience, compression creep, damage resistance, stability, and economy of vibration impact energy are comprehensively considered. Of course, it is difficult and unscientific to choose a cushioning material that possesses all the above good properties. Only based on the main characteristics of ceramic crafts, we have to consider the performance parameters of cushioning materials.
Foam plastic is a lightweight plastic containing many tiny pores made of synthetic resin and foamed. Because of its numerous internal pores, it can absorb a large amount of energy generated by vibration shock. The foam also has good resilience. In addition, it is also clean, beautiful and inexpensive.
Given the above characteristics of the foam, this design plan uses foam as the main buffer material.
2 3 packaging structure design
When the buffer material is selected, the structural design is also an important part of the package design to save material and achieve ideal vibration reduction. Taking an antique porcelain bottle as an example, the antique porcelain is 68cm high and its maximum diameter is 40cm. Considering that its shape is a circular symmetrical structure and there is a bottleneck, the shaped foam for cushioning is designed as a 'Hafur' structure (that is, made into two symmetrical bubbles with a diameter of 1 cm larger than the outer diameter of the inner diameter type. Plastic), see Figure 2.
Fig.2 Structure of 'Hafur' structure and its dynamic model of the overall CI type
In Fig. 2, the bottom of the vase, together with the sides, forms an integral 'Hafur' structure; the top buffer block is specially made into a lower convex structure according to the bottle mouth size; the entire packaging structure can be referred to as CI type of 'Hafur'. 'structure.
The thinnest thickness of the fixed buffer should be more than 3cm. Two symmetric foams have porcelain in the middle (preferably a soft thick paper on the outside of the porcelain), and a soft sponge layer is placed between the two foam plates and the porcelain to make the porcelain vase as large as possible. Forced evenly to give it maximum static pressure tolerance while further improving the cushioning effect.
Above the mouth of the bottle is covered with a convex foam with a matching caliber and shape. A thin layer of soft sponge is also added between the upper and lower foam blocks. The entire circumference formed by a few pieces of foam board is then properly and effectively wound with a wide tape, making it a close whole. On this basis, fit a dedicated cardboard box or a wooden frame set on the outside. In this way, the overall package is complete. It should be noted here that porcelain cannot be tightly tied around the perimeter, otherwise the vase is vulnerable to high static pressure and local stress concentration. On the contrary, it cannot be tied too loosely, otherwise it will cause the porcelain itself to shake in the foam box, and it will be easily damaged and damaged.
As can be seen from FIG. 2 , since the bottleneck does not come in contact with the outer box and is not affected by the side force, the contribution to the buffering is little. For this reason, for some vases with thin necks and long necks, considering the material saving, we have designed the packing buffers for the upper and lower double “Hafur” structures, as shown in Figure 3.
Double "Hafur" packing structure and its dynamic model
This structure saves packaging material for slender neck vases without sacrificing cushioning performance.
3 actual results
A vertical drop test was performed on the packaging of the above two types of structures. The test condition is that the box is free to fall after being raised to a height of 2.5 m above the ground, and the ground surface is selected to be generally smooth cement pavement. After 20 consecutive simulated drop tests, the two inner vases were intact and there were no broken phenomena or cracks. The height of 2.5m is enough to simulate the comparatively harsh impact conditions of the general vehicle loading and unloading, indicating that the packaging design described in this article does achieve the expected results.
Through the improved design of packaging materials and structures for ceramic handicrafts, remarkable results have been achieved. Judging from the information returned from daily transportation, handling, loading and unloading, and on-shelf sales, almost no damage caused by transportation and handling was found. Compared with before, the loss rate has been greatly reduced, and good economic benefits have been received. At the same time, liability disputes have also been greatly reduced. In this regard, companies and customers are satisfied.
As for the handling of packaging boxes, as people's environmental protection awareness is strengthened, they can be recycled for recycling, making them return to the economic cycle and achieving the purpose of protecting the environment and saving resources.
This paper establishes a dynamic model for the buffer packaging of ceramic crafts. On the basis of the qualitative analysis based on the application of dynamic principles, the previously used indefinite forms of packaging materials were abandoned, economical synthetic foams were used, and a rational “Halfou” structural packaging design scheme was proposed. The cushioning effect of the designed package on vibration and impact was improved, and it was well verified from the vertical drop simulation test and practical application of the enterprise, and the expected good results were achieved. The success of the above-mentioned improved design is an effective attempt to cushion and package ceramic craftwork, and it also provides valuable experience for future design. In the subsequent packaging studies, new materials and new structures, such as shaped cushioning paper structures, will also be used in place of foamed cushioning components in order to achieve better environmental protection.